Congenital heart diseases | Symptoms & Causes | Diagnosis

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Congenital heart diseases

What is Congenital heart diseases?

A malformation of the heart, aorta, or other large blood vessels that is the most frequent form of major birth defect in newborns. Abbreviated CHD. There are many types of CHD, including atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD), pulmonary (valvular) stenosis, aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, Tetralogy of Fallot, and transposition of the great arteries.

A congenital heart defect refers to a problem in the development of the heart that usually presents at birth but might manifest later in life also. These problems can be mild, that is, a small hole between the chambers of the heart never requiring surgery to more severe requiring major heart surgeries. The heart has four chambers separated by a wall or a septum. On one side of the septum is oxygen poor blood and on the other side is the oxygen rich blood. Congenital heart disease can have either a hole connecting the two chambers or an abnormal connection in the heart so that the oxygen poor blood and oxygen rich blood mix together. In some cases the problem may be of poor contraction of the heart.
Every year 2 lakh children are born with congenital heart defects. At least 60,000 of these need treatment in the 1st year of life. Only 5000 get treatment because of lack of awareness amongst public in general and GP's leading to delayed diagnosis. Poor socio-economic status of families often leads to delayed treatment.


The reason behind congenital cardiovascular disease is also genetic, environmental, or a mix of each.GeneticGenetic mutations, usually sporadic , represent the most important identified reason behind congenital heart defects.EnvironmentalKnown environmental factors embrace sure infections throughout maternity like rubeola, medicine (alcohol, hydantoin, lithium and thalidomide) and maternal health problem (diabetes mellitus, inborn error of metabolism, and general lupus erythematosus). Alcohol exposure within the father conjointly seems to extend the chance of congenital heart defects.Being overweight or obese will increase the chance of congenital cardiovascular disease. additionally, as maternal fat will increase, the chance of heart defects additionally will increase. a definite physiological mechanism has not been known to clarify the link between maternal fat and CHD, however each prepregnancy B complex deficiency and polygenic disease are concerned in some studies.

Diagnosis & Tests

Many congenital heart defects can be diagnosed prenatally by fetal echocardiography. This is a test which can be done during the second trimester of pregnancy, when the woman is about 18

Prevention & Risk Factors

Congenital heart defects are partly preventable through rubella vaccination, the adding of iodine to salt, and the adding of folic acid to certain food products.

Treatments & Therapies

CHD might need surgery and medications. Medications embody diuretics, that aid the body in eliminating water, salts, and digitalis for strengthening the contraction of the guts. This slows the heartbeat and removes some fluid from tissues. Some defects need surgical procedures to revive circulation back to normal and in some cases, multiple surgeries are required.Interventional cardiology currently offers patients minimally invasive alternatives to surgery for some patients. The Melody Transcatheter semilunar valve (TPV), approved in Europe in 2006 and within the U.S. in 2010 underneath a Humanitarian Device Exemption (HDE), is meant to treat nonheritable heart condition patients with a dysfunctional passage in their right cavum outflow tract (RVOT). The RVOT is the connection between the heart and lungs; once blood reaches the lungs, it's enriched with oxygen before being pumped up to the remainder of the body. Transcatheter pulmonary valve technology provides a less-invasive means that to increase the lifetime of a failing RVOT conduit and is meant to permit physicians to deliver a replacement pulmonary valve via a catheter through the patient