Congenital cataract
 


What this section contains?

Congenital cataract

What is Congenital cataract?

A congenital cataract is a clouding of the lens of the eye that is present at birth. The lens of the eye is normally clear. It focuses light that comes into the eye onto the retina. It is also known as 'infantile cataract' if it develops in the first six months after birth. It can affect one eye, which is known as 'unilateral cataract' or both eyes, which is known as 'bilateral cataract'.
Most children with cataract in only one eye usually have good vision in the other. In case of children, permanent loss of vision (amblyopia) may occur, if prompt treatment is not provided.

Cause

In general, around one-third of inborn cataracts ar a element of a additional intensive syndrome or disease (e.g., cataract ensuing from congenital measles syndrome), one-third occur as an isolated inheritable attribute, and one-third result from undetermined causes. Metabolic diseases tend to be additional commonly related to bilateral cataracts.GeneticsApproximately five hundredth of all inborn cataract cases could have a genetic cause that is sort of heterogeneous. it's known that totally different mutations within the same gene will cause similar cataract patterns, whereas the extremely variable morphologies of cataracts inside some families suggest that a similar mutation in a very single gene will cause totally different phenotypes. over twenty five loci and genes on totally different chromosomes are related to congenital cataract. Mutations in distinct genes, that inscribe the most cytoplasmatic proteins of human lens, are related to cataracts of assorted morphologies, together with genes coding crystallins (CRYA, CRYB, and CRYG), lens specific connexins (Cx43, Cx46, and Cx50), major intrinsic protein (MIP) or Aquaporin, cytoskeletal structural proteins, paired-like homeodomain transcription issue three (PITX3), avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma (MAF), and heat shock transcription factor 4 (HSF4).

Diagnosis & Tests

All newborns should have screening eye examinations, including an evaluation of the red reflexes.

  • The red reflex test is best performed in a darkened room and involves shining a bright direct ophthalmoscope into both eyes simultaneously from a distance of 1

Prevention & Risk Factors

SurgeryIn general, the younger the kid, the greater the urgency in removing the cataract, because of the danger of visual impairment. For best visual development in newborns and young infants, a visually vital unilateral congenital cataract ought to be detected and removed before age six weeks, and visually significant bilateral congenital cataracts ought to be removed before age ten weeks.Some congenital cataracts area unit too little to have an effect on vision, so no surgery or treatment are done. If they're superficial and tiny, AN specialist can still monitor them throughout a patient's life. Commonly, a patient with little congenital cataracts that don't have an effect on vision can eventually be affected later in life; usually this can take decades to occur.

Treatments & Therapies

SurgeryIn general, the younger the kid, the bigger the urgency in removing the cataract, owing to the chance of visual defect. For best visual development in newborns and young infants, a visually vital unilateral congenital cataract ought to be detected and removed before age six weeks, and visually vital bilateral congenital cataracts ought to be removed before age ten weeks.Some inherent cataracts are too little to have an effect on vision, so no surgery or treatment are done. If they're superficial and little, associate eye doctor can still monitor them throughout a patient's life. Commonly, a patient with little congenital cataracts that don't have an effect on vision can eventually be affected later in life; typically this may take decades to occur.