Talipes (club foot)
 


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 Talipes (club foot)

What is Talipes (club foot)?

Clubfoot. The Latin word talipes was compounded from talus (ankle) + pes (foot) since, with the common ("classic") type of clubfoot (talipes equinovarus), the foot is turned in sharply and the person seems to be walking on their ankle. Talipes equinovalgus: Malformation of the foot evident at birth in which the heel is elevated like a horse's hoof (equino-) and the heel is turned outward (valgus).

This is a type of congenital deformity of the foot usually marked by a curled shape or twisted position of the ankle and heel and toes.
Clubfoot is one of the most common congenital physical disabilities worldwide, known to occur in 1-3 of every 1,000 births worldwide with evidence of higher rates in our country.

Explain to the parents that this condition if intervened early can be treated using a series of plaster casts over 4 - 6 weeks to correct the deformity, followed by use of Braces.
If the condition is mild and foot is mobile at ankle, the mother can be reassured that doctors will teach her exercises to help correct child's foot.

Cause

There area unit several hypotheses concerning however clubfoot develops. Some hypotheses include: environmental factors, genetics, or a mix of each. analysis has not however pinpointed the root cause, however several findings agree that "it is likely there's more than one different cause and at least in some cases the constitution might occur as a results of a threshold impact of various factors acting along."Some researchers suppose, from the early development stages of humans, that clubfoot is created by a malfunction during gestation. Early centesis (11

Diagnosis & Tests

Diagnosis of clubfoot deformity is by physical examination. Typically, a newborn is examined shortly after delivery with a head to toe assessment. Examination of the lower extremity and foot reveals the deformity, which can have an effect on one or both feet. Examination of the foot shows four elements of deformity.First, there's a better arch on the inside of the foot. This component of the deformity will occur without the opposite aspects of clubfoot deformity. In isolation, this side of the deformity is named cavus deformity.Second, the forefoot is bowed inward or medially (toward the big toe). This element of the deformity will occur without the opposite aspects of clubfoot deformity. In isolation, this side of the deformity is named metatarsus adductus.Third, the heel is turned inward. this is often a natural motion of the heel and subtalar joint, generally cited as inversion. In clubfoot deformity, the surrendering (inversion) of the heel is fastened (not passively correctable) and considered a varus deformity.Fourth, and at last, the ankle is pointed downward. this is often a natural motion of the ankle cited as plantar flexion. In clubfoot deformity, this position is fastened (not correctable) and is cited as equinus deformity.A foot that shows all four elements is diagnosed as having clubfoot deformity. These four elements of a clubfoot deformity is remembered with the form CAVE (cavus, foot adductus, varus and equinus).

Prevention & Risk Factors

Prevention is usually not possible

Treatments & Therapies

Treatment is typically with some combination of the Ponseti or French strategies. The Ponseti technique includes the following: casting together with manipulation, cutting the Achilles tendon, and bracing. The Ponseti technique has been found to be effective in correcting the problem in those below the age of 2. The French technique that involves realignment and taping of the foot is usually effective however needs plenty of effort by caregivers. Another technique called Kite doesn't seem as good. In about 200th of cases, additional surgery is needed.Ponseti techniqueUsing the Ponseti method, the foot deformity is corrected in stages. These stages ar as follows: manipulating the foot to associate improved position so holding it with an extended leg cast, then removing the cast when a week, so manipulating the foot again. The foot position sometimes improves over a course of four