Cognitive delay
 


What this section contains?

Cognitive delay

What is Cognitive delay?

Intellectual disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills.

Cause

Delirium
Delirium can be caused by the worsening of previous medical conditions, substance abuse or withdrawal, mental illness, severe pain, immobilization, sleep deprivation and hypnosis.

Other common causes that may increase the risk of delirium include infections of urinary tract, skin and stomach, pneumonia, old age, and poor nutrition.

Mild and major neurocognitive disorder
Neurocognitive disorders can have numerous causes: genetics, brain trauma, stroke, and heart issues. The main causes are neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease because they affect or deteriorate brain functions. Other diseases and conditions that cause NDCs include vascular dementia, frontotemporal degeneration, Lewy body disease, prion disease, normal pressure hydrocephalus, and dementia/neurocognitive issues due to HIV infection. They may also include dementia due to substance abuse or exposure to toxins.

Neurocognitive disorder may also be caused by brain trauma, including concussions and traumatic brain injuries, as well as post-traumatic stress and alcoholism. This is referred to as amnesia, and is characterized by damage to major memory encoding parts of the brain such as the hippocampus. Difficulty creating recent term memories is called anterograde amnesia and is caused by damage to the hippocampus part of the brain, which is a major part of the memory process. Retrograde amnesia is also caused by damage to the hippocampus, but the memories that were encoded or in the process of being encoded in long term memory are erased

Diagnosis & Tests

Prevention & Risk Factors

Treatments & Therapies

Delirium
Before delirium treatment, the cause must be established. Medication such as antipsychotics or benzodiazepines can help reduce the symptoms for some cases. For alcohol or malnourished cases, vitamin B supplements are recommended and for extreme cases, life-support can be used.

Mild and major neurocognitive disorder
There is no cure for neurocognitive disorder or the diseases that cause it. Antidepressants, antipsychotics, and other medications that treat memory loss and behavioral symptoms are available and may help to treat the diseases. Ongoing psychotherapy and psychosocial support for patients and families are usually necessary for clear understanding and proper management of the disorder and to maintain a better quality of life for everyone involved. Speech therapy has been shown to help with language impairment.

Studies suggest that diets with high Omega 3 content, low in saturated fats and sugars, along with regular exercise can increase the level of brain plasticity. Other studies have shown that mental exercise such a newly developed